A diagram of the breast can be seen in figure 2. Breast cancer mainly occurs in the epithelial lining of the terminal duct lobular unit. These cancers are termed adenocarcinomas. Depending upon the size and aggressiveness of the tumour, the tissues within and the muscles surrounding the breast can all be affected.
Although breast cancer in men does occur, it is uncommon with only 0. The rarity of the illness does not detract from its physical severity or psychological effects. The affected male would need the same care as a woman as well as an understanding of the unique situation as a man with the disease.
These mutations can be inherited, due to the environment or both. These factors will be discussed individually as follows. If a mutated allele was inherited, the second allele would have to be mutated due to environmental factors for cancer to develop.
Thus both functional copies of the gene are altered. Alcohol is such a substance that is known to exert toxic effects on the liver.
However, it can also exert a carcinogenic effect indirectly to the breast by cell stimulations. The breasts being affected by hormonal stimulus, especially during the menstrual cycle, can also be affected by hormone replacement therapy after menopause. Studies have shows the risk of cancer was even higher in women who used a combined oestrogen and progesterone therapy.
There has been significant evidence of women development breast cancer after they have been treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy for Hodgkin disease. This is especially significant with those who were treated for Hodgkin at a very young age.
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This is similar to the breast cancer caused by exposure to the radiation from atomic bombs. The aromatic hydrocarbons in cigarette smoke is carcinogenic not only causing lung cancer but also other cancers such as breast cancer. The effect of smoking acts in a similar way as the poly-cyclic hydrocarbons in well done meat which is also carcinogenic. Therefore, exposure to substances such as such as alcohol, tobacco, hormone replacement therapy, high fat diet, chemotherapy and radiotherapy may lead to an increased risk of breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Dissertation
There is a decreased risk with later menarche, early menopause, early pregnancy and lactation. However, when Asian women migrate to the west, their grandchildren experience similar levels of breast cancer as that of the local population of the host country. Therefore, the environmental component is a significant contributor to breast cancer. Regular exercise decreases the risk of breast cancer as is a lower distribution of body fat. However, there has been extensive research on inherited breast cancer.
Alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk | Breast Cancer Research | Full Text
A summary of such information is set out below. A family history of breast cancer increases the risk for the disease. This risk is even greater if the woman has a first-degree relative diagnosed with breast cancer at a young age or if there are more than one first-degree relative with the disease. This clustering of breast cancer is known as familial aggregation.
This aggregation indicates a strong fundamental risk factor that is shared amongst the relatives. The reason for familial aggregation of breast cancer is still limited and is the subject of continuing research.
Lifestyle and environmental risk factors only explain a small amount of familial aggregation. It is considered that genetic risk factors may well explain the majority of familial aggregation. However, they only explain a small portion of familial aggregation.
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