References in an essay

Long quotations. Direct quotations longer than 40 words should be in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented five spaces from the left margin. Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation five spaces from the new margin.

Maintain double-spacing throughout. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.

How To Reference - Harvard Style Referencing Guide - Swinburne Online

Jones's study found the following:. Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. Summary or Paraphrase. When paraphrasing, make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference, but APA guidelines encourage you to also provide the page number not required. According to Jones , APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners. APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners Jones, , p.

Before you write

Citing an Author or Authors. Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in the parentheses each time you cite the work. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in the parentheses. Three to Five Authors: List all the authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses the first time you cite the source. In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by "et al. Six or More Authors: Use the first author's name followed by et al.

Unknown Author: If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses. Titles of books and reports are italicized or underlined; titles of articles and chapters are in quotation marks.

How Do I Cite Sources? -

Organization as an Author: If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source. If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations. Two or More Works in the Same Parentheses: When your parenthetical citation includes two or more works, order them the same way they appear in the reference list, separated by a semi-colon.

Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year: If you have two sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters a, b, c with the year to order the entries in the reference list. Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation. Personal Communication: For interviews, letters, e-mails, and other person-to-person communication, cite the communicator's name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication.

Do not include personal communication in the reference list. If you use a source that was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase. Subsequent entries: double-spaced between each entry but all entries are single spaced. Author name.

Writing Better University Essays/Referencing

Title with first letter in first word capitalized unless is it a journal. Fisher, A. Finding fish.

Thomas, G. Teaching students with mental retardation: A life goal curriculum planning approach.

  • john fowles the enigma essay;
  • negative population growth essays;
  • ptsd research paper titles.
  • concluding a term paper.

Like APA, in-text citations should directly follow paraphrased material to correspond with the works cited page at the end of the essay. Place source information in parentheses and separate the source name and any other identifying information, which most times pertains to a source page number and date, website page name and date, if it is an Internet source or other source with the date and type of source given.

Works cited page:.

Identifying Sources in the Body of Your Paper

Indention: hanging indention. Fisher, Antone Q. Finding Fish. Thomas, Glen E.

Citation Guide (MLA and APA)

Refer to the Chicago Manual of style section for footnotes and end notes style information:. Use this style for history, arts, and social sciences papers as instructed by your teacher. Bibliographic notes : these are either footnotes, endnotes, or both included in one essay, depending on teacher preference. Remember, place footnotes at the end of a page with citations and endnotes at the end of an essay on separate page before the bibliography page. Footnotes example:. See Plagiarism and academic integrity. Make sure you are familiar with the referencing style your faculty or school requires.

Most have guides specifying the system they prefer. If this is the case, use the system you are most comfortable with. See The Learning Centre guides to various citation styles. Remember to list all the books and articles you use for the essay in a Reference List. This is a list of all works cited in your essay, and should be the final page.

Navigation menu

More Notices. Skip to main content.

Current Students. Sign on Search Menu.